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 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

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مُساهمةموضوع: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan   الثلاثاء سبتمبر 29, 2009 10:35 pm

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
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Where is Jordan
Jordan is a relatively small Country in the Middle East. It’s boarded by Syria (north), Iraq (east), Saudi Arabia (east, south), and Israel and P.N.A (west).
Distances within the country are relatively short: only 450km from Martha inthe north to Aqaba in the south, and only 130km from the capital Amman to Azraq in the east.
Official name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Population: 4.9 million.
Capital: Amman.
Official language: Arabic, although English is widely spoken in the larger towns.
Religion: Islam (85%) & Christianity.


Climate in Jordan
Jordan has a Mediterranean climate with hot dry summer, and cool moist winter. The sun shines all year around. Rainy days are rare or none in Aqaba. December and January are the rainy months in Jordan. During the hottest months of the year, July and August, there is a cooling breeze. It is not humidin either Amman or Aqaba.

Clothes to Pack on Your Trip to Jordan
Visitors to Jordan should carry cotton clothes in Summer and woolen
clothes in Winter, comfortable shoes for walking tours, long trousers for camel rides, warm clothes for the evening, bathing suit, towel, hat ,sunblock and lip protection, sunglasses, camera, backpack for personal belongings…

Food & Drink
Maglouba ‘upside-down-rice’ lamb or chicken stewed with rice, potatoes and aubergines.
Shish Kebab/Shish Tawook : pieces of lamb or chicken cooked over charcoal.
Falafel : chick peas, ground and deep fried, very traditional and delicious.
Humus : a dip made from pureed chick peas, tahini, olive oil, garlic & lemon.
Alcoholic drinks are available at the international hotels and restaurants.
Sweet tea flavoured with mint and strong Arabic coffee flavoured with cardomen is offered and drunk all the time.

The tap water in southern Jordan comes directly from the natural spring water table beneath Disi (next door to Wadi Rum) and is the sweetest in the world! In the north, it is advisable to drink bottled water.

Safety
Jordan is one of the safest countries in the world. Street crime is virtually unknown. If you have a medical crisis, get lost or need help of any sort, people will immediately rush to your aid. Tourists are constantly amazed at how lost or forgotten items, such as wallets and cameras, are returned to them.

Cultural Tips
Jordan is an Islamic country. Although comparatively liberal, many of the women are veiled. Visitors,especially women, are advised to dress modestly. This not only shows your respect for the culture, but also will help you be accepted. Do not take photographs without asking permission first. Respect the culture and traditions and you will be rewarded with warmth and hospitality.

Visa & Entry Information
A visa is required to anybody. Embassies & consulates of the of Jordan are authorized to issue tourist visas for 3 months, same could be obtained upon arrival without any delay, for groups over 5 persons, 5 lists of passport details is required.
Visas may also be obtained on arrival to Jordan. Visa charges vary according to nationality. Payment should be in local currency. Foreign exchange services are available in the arrival points. Some nationalities require visas in advance, please check with your Jordanian embassy. If staying more than 2 weeks the visitor needs to register at the nearest police station. This is a formality and a 3 months extension should be granted free of charge.


Jordanian Currency
The Jordan Dinar is the unit of the Jordanian currency. It is divided into 100 piasters, each of which is divided into 10 Fils. Banknotes : 50 Dinars - 20 Dinars - 10 Dinars - 5 Dinars –1 Dinar and Half a Dinar.
Coins : 1 Dinar - 500 Fils - 250 Fils - 100 Fils - 50 Fils - 25 Fils - 10 Fils and 5 Fils.
Banks are open 8.30 – 3.30 and closed on Fridays & Saturdays. Money Exchange Offices are open everyday from early in the morning until late at night, and generally give better rates than the banks. Credit cards are accepted at most major venues. US dollars are always welcome. (JD0.71=1$).

Credit Cards
Master Card, Visa, American Express, Carte Blanche, Diners Club and JCB are accepted at leading hotels,restaurants, travel agencies and shops.

Customs & Regulations
200 cigarettes, 25 cigars and 1 liter of spirits per person. Small cameras are not restricted but video cameras and professional photo equipment should be declared upon arrival.

Tipping
Most hotels and restaurants add a service charge to your bill. Otherwise a tip is always appreciated.


Local Holidays
New Year 1January,Labour day 01 May, Independence day 25 May, Arab Renaissance Day 10 June, King Abdallah accession to the throne 9 June, King Hussein's birthday 14 November.
The Muslim calendar (Hijra) is 11 days shorter than the Gregorian calendar and therefore its holidays vary from year to year. The Moslem Holidays are: Eid el-fiter, Eid el-adha, Moslem new year, Al-Isra' & Al-Meiraaj, and prophet Mohammad's Birthday. In addition, Friday is a holiday in Jordan according to the tradition in most Moslem countries.

Newspapers
The Jordan Times & Star are the daily English language newspaper. The leading European and American newspapers are also available.

Radio & Television
Radio Jordan is the English language station broadcasting mostly current western pop music, and Jordan TV2 has several English language programs. Satellite TV is available in most big hotels.

Communication
International phone calls can be made at a reasonable price from Tele-communication Offices in Amman and Aqaba, or from the numerous private telephone offices. The cheapest way to call overseas is to buy an international telephone card, widely available in kiosks and local shops. Faxes can be sent from the telephone offices and most towns now have a modest Internet Café.
Time
GMT + 2 during winter GMT + 3 during summer.

Some Useful Arabic Phrases

Hello Marhaba
Goodbye Ma'asalamah
Yes Aiwa
No La
My name is Ismee
What is your name? Shoo ismek?
Thank you Shukran
Your welcome 'afwan
Please Lao Samaht
Excuse me 'an iznek
What time is it? Edesh issa'a?
How much does this cost? Bikam hatha?
Where is the nearest restroom Wen il hammam?
Left Shmal
Right Yameen
Straight Dughree
Do you accept credit cards? Mumken adfa'a bi kart masrafi?
Could you speak more slowly please? Mumkin tehkee shway shway min fadlak?
Thank you Shokran
How are you? Kayf halak?
Fine thanks Quaies el Hamdulillah
See you later Ashoofak badane
If God wills! In-Sha’allah
Today Al-yoom
Tomorrow Bukra
How much/many? Gadesh?
Where? Wayne?
When? Aymta?
Tea/Coffee Shay/Qahwa
Without Sugar Bidun sukkar
I want the Bill Biddi Fatura
One Waahid
Two Tinain
Three Talaateh
Four Arba'a
Five Khamseh
Six Sitteh
Seven Sab'a
Eight Tamenyeh
Nine Tis'a
Ten ‘Ashra


A M M A N

A sprawling city spread over 19 hills, or jebels. Amman is the modern, as well as the ancient capital of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan. Known as Rabbath-Ammon during prehistoric periods and later as Philadelphia, the ancient city that was once part of the Decapolis league, now boasts a population of around 1.5 million.

Often referred to as the white city due to its low size canvas of stone houses, Amman offers a variety of historical sites and modern facilities that is complemented by wonderfully gracious and welcoming people.

Amman is a busy commercial and administrative center with many fine hotels, restaurants, art galleries and museums. Shopping amenities vary from old markets and souqs full of gold and spices to modern boutiques offering local handicrafts and imported fashions.

Towering above Amman, the site of the earliest fortifications is now subject to numerous excavations which have revealed remains from the Neolithic period as well as from the Hellenistic and late Roman to Arab Islamic Ages. The site which is known as the Citadel includes many structures such as the Temple of Hercules, the Omayyad Palace and the Byzantine church. At the foot of the Citadel lies the 6000 seat Roman Theatre which is deep-sided bowl carved into the hill and still used for cultural events. Another newly restored theater is the 500-seat Odeon which is used for concerts. The three museums found in the area offer a glimpse of history and culture, they are the Jordan Archaeological Museums, the Folklore Museum and the Museum of Popular Tradition.

Amman is an excellent base to explore the environs and many interesting half-day or full-day trips can be arranged. The ancient town of Salt and the traditional villages of Fuheis and Kan Zaman, for example, are less than an hour away and feature traditional restaurants, handicrafts complexes and picturesque streets from ancient times.


A Q A B A
Aqaba, with its clean sandy beaches and transparent waters, is an ideal location for both relaxation and water sports. Sunbathing, Swimming, para-sailing, water skiing and jet skiing, are just some of the activities to partake in.

Famed for its preserved coral reefs and unique sea life, this Red Sea port city was, in ancient times, the main port for shipments from the Red Sea to the Far East.

The Mameluk Fort, One of the main historical land marks of Aqaba was originally a Crusader Castle, rebuilt by the Mameluks in the sixteenth century. Square in shape and flanked by semicircular towers, the fort is marked with various inscriptions marking the latter period of the Islamic dynasty.

The current excavations at the ancient site of Medieval Islamic Ayla already revealed a gate and city wall along with towers, buildings, a town mosque, courtyards and baths.

The Museum houses a collection of artifacts collected in the region, including pottery and coins. It also hosts the house of Sharif Hussein Bin Ali, the great grandfather of King Abdullah II.

Other places of interest are the site of the oldest church in the world, the Aquarium and several diving centers across the shore line.

Surrounded by rugged mountains that subtly change color as the day unfolds, Aqaba is Jordan's only port city. Its crystal clear waters, abundant marine life and pleasant climate (With moderate temperatures in winter and fresh cooling sea breezes in summer), make it an ideal location for year round scuba diving, snorkeling and other water sports. The Red Sea's unique marine ecosystem includes more than 140 species of coral and countless varieties of brightly colored fish, some of which are unique to the region.

Aqaba's Royal Diving Center and several other qualified dive operates offer complete diving services including PADI and BSAC courses, equipment rental and fully supervised dives to some of the finest dive sites in the world.

For the history enthusiast are sites reflecting human habitation for at least 5500 years resulting from Aqaba's strategic location at the junction of land and sea routes from Asia, Africa and Europe. Of special interest among the ancient and medieval archaeological sites are the newly discovered site of what is thought to be the Oldest church in the world, the early Islamic city called Ayla, a Mamluke fort and a very fine museum at the house of Sharif Hussein bin Ali, great grand-father of King Abdallah the Second.



D E A D S E A
Within the folds of the Jordan Valley lies the Dead Sea, more than 400 m below sea level and the lowest point on earth. Rich in minerals that have seeped from adjacent wadis, the Dead Sea, as well as having exceptionally buoyant water, is believed by many to have curative powers. The nearby waters of Hammamat Ma'in, where a thermal spa has been built, are thought to be similarly imbued.

The Dead Sea itself is flanked by mountains to the east and rolling hills of Jerusalem to the west, giving it an almost other - worldly beauty. Although sparsely populated and serenely quiet now, the area is believed to have been home to five Biblical cities: Sodom, Gomorrah, Adman, Zebouin and Zoar



J E R A S H
A close second to Petra on the list of favorite destinations in Jordan, the ancient city of Jerash boasts as unbroken chain of human occupation dating back more than 6,500 years.

The city's golden age came under Roman rule and the site is now generally acknowledged to be one of the best preserved Roman provincial towns in the world. Hidden for centuries in sand before being excavated and restored over the past 70 years, Jerash reveals a fine example of the grand, formal provincial Roman urbanism that is found throughout the Middle East, comprising paved and colonnaded streets, soaring hilltop temples, handsome theatres, spacious public squares and plazas, baths, fountains and city walls pierced by towers and gates.
Beneath its external Graeco - Roman veneer, Jerash also preserves a subtle blend of east and west. Its architecture, religion and languages reflect a process by which two powerful cultures meshed and coexisted, The Graeco - Roman world of the Mediterranean basin and the ancient traditions of the Arab Orient.

The Jerash festival, held in July every year, transforms the ancient city into one of the world's liveliest and most spectacular culture events. The festival features folklore dances by local and international groups, ballet, concerts, plays, opera, popular singers and sales of traditional handicrafts, all in the brilliantly floodlit dramatic surroundings of the Jerash ruins.

P E T R A
The ancient city of Petra is one of Jordan's national treasures and by far its best known tourist attraction. Located about three hours south of Amman, Petra is the legacy of the Nabataens, an industrious Arab people who settled in southern Jordan more than 2000 years ago. Admired then for its refined culture, massive architecture and ingenious complex of dams and water channels, Petra is now a UNESCO world heritage site that enchants visitors from all corners of the globe.

Much of Petra's appeal comes from its spectacular setting deep inside a narrow desert gorge. The site is accessed by walking through a kilometer long chasm (or siq), the walls of which soar 200 meters upwards. Petra's most famous monument, the Treasury, appears dramatically at the end of the siq.

Used in the final sequence of the film "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade", the towering facade of the Treasury is only one of myriad archaeological wonders to be explored at Petra.

Various walks and climbs reveal literally hundreds of buildings, tombs, baths, funerary halls, temples, arched gateways, colonnaded streets and haunting rock drawings - as well as a 3000 seat open air amphitheatre circa, a gigantic first century Monastery and a modern archeological museum, all of which can be explored at leisure.

A modest shrine commemorating the death of Aaron, brother of Moses, was built in the 13th century by the Mamluke Sultan, high a top mount Aaron in the Sharah range.

U M M Q A I S

In addition to Jerash and Amman, Gadara ( now Umm Qais ) and Pella ( now Tabaqat Fahil ) were once Decapolis cities, and each has unique appeal. Famous for the biblical story of the Gadarene Swine, was renewed in its time as a cultural centre. Perched on a splendid hill top overlooking the Jordan Valley and the sea of Galilee, Umm Qais boasts impressive ancient remains. Such as the stunning black basalt theatre, the basilica and adjacent courtyard strewn with nicely carved black sarcophagi, the colonnaded main street and a side street lined with shops, an underground mausoleum, two baths, a nymphaeum, a city gate and the faint on outlines of what was a massive hippodrome.

Pella is exceptionally rich in antiquities, some of which are exceedingly old. Besides the excavated ruins from the Graeco - Roman period, Pella offers visitors the opportunity to see the remains of Chalcolithic settlement from the 4th millennium BC, evidence of Bronze and Iron age walled cities, Byzantine churches, early Islamic residence and a small medieval mosque.


U M M J I M A L

The eastern most of the major northern cities, Umm al Jimal, is located at the edge of the eastern basalt desert plain, along a secondary road that was close to the junction of several ancient trade routes that linked central Jordan with Syria and Iraq. Among the most interesting structures to visit are the tall barracks with their little chapel, several large churches, and numerous open and roofed water cisterns, the outlines of a Roman fort and the remains of several town gates.

Excavations here have uncovered some of the finest Byzantine church mosaics in the Middle East, including a large carpet depicting Old and New Testament cities on both the east and west banks of the Jordan River. Another feature at Umm al Rassas walled settlement is a 15-meter Byzantine tower used by early christian monks seeking solitude.


A J L O U N

The marvels of nature and the genius of medieval Arab military architecture have given north Jordan two of the most important ecological and historical attractions in the Middle East the sprawling pine forests of the Ajloun-Dibbine area, and the towering Arab-Islamic castle at Ajloun that helped to defeat the Crusaders eight centuries ago.

Both these natural and man-made marvels, along with other attractions in the north, are being carefully protected to form the core of a pioneering Eco-tourism project now being implemented with French technical assistance, which aims to preserve the large pine forest that stretches from Ajloun towards the north; this is a unique environmental resource, for it is the southernmost complete pine forest in the world. The area's cool forests, beautiful picnic areas, and extensive walking trails already attract visitors throughout the April-October season, especially from the Gulf and other warmer regions of the Middle East.

The project that has been recently launched will designate three concentric zones: a) an inner, fully protected nature reserve where the pine forest can flourish in perpetuity; b) an environment-friendly Eco-tourism zone where private sector investments will be encouraged in services such as chalets; and, c) a surrounding national park acting as a buffer zone, where visitors can enjoy picnics, trail walks, and other low-impact activities.

The combination of the invigorating forests, clean air, cool summer temperatures, easy access from all north Jordan, and a series of major antiquities sites promises to make this a leading new tourism destination, for both international and domestic tourists. The gateway to the national park will be from the Jerash region, just 20 minutes by car to the east. The Greco-Roman city of Jerash, among the best preserved cities of its kind in the world, is one of Jordan's leading tourist attractions.

Ajloun Castle, more formally known as Qualm er-Rabad, is the major ancient site within the Ajloun forests region. It towers above the green hills and can be seen from many miles away, betraying its strategic purpose as a military watch post that protected the trade routes in the 12th-15th Centuries. It was first built in 1184 by the nephew of Salaheddin (Saladin), Izzeddin Usama Munqith, to repel the Crusader threats to north Jordan (the Crusaders had already occupied south Jordan, from their massive castles at Shobak and Karak, and were driven out of TransJordan in 1189). The Ajloun castle was expanded in 1214 into its current configuration.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan   الأحد نوفمبر 22, 2009 9:29 pm

thank you dandoon Smile
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan   الأحد نوفمبر 22, 2009 9:31 pm

lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol! lol!
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan   الأربعاء ديسمبر 09, 2009 11:16 pm

Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question
confused confused confused confused confused confused confused
Exclamation Exclamation why Question Question
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan   الخميس ديسمبر 10, 2009 3:05 am

why>why dana Question
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